Extreme Environment Systems
Generation and control of clean energy such as via combined cycle gas-fired power plants is an important research area for greener economies. Such power plants operate in extreme and hazardous environments and require operations at the newer higher temperatures ranges for better efficiencies and cleaner operations. Riza and co-workers have demonstrated novel extreme environment optical sensors needed for these extreme temperature (> 1500 deg-C) Zero Emissions fossil fuel-based power generation systems. These Riza group inventions include Silicon Carbide-based extreme temperature hybrid design sensors to measure temperature and pressure. To design these Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical sensors, Riza lab conducted the first single crystal SiC thermo-optic coefficient material characterization and experimental measurements exceeding 1000 deg-C (AIP 2005). Riza and co-researchers invented a world first SiC pyrometry-laser interferometry hybrid freespace-fiber-optic design extreme temperature sensor for direct measurement of gas temperature in a combustor (IEEE 2006). Temperature sensing experiments using this silicon carbide thermometer placed in a commercial rig reached world record high temperatures of 1600 deg-C (ASME 2010). The Riza lab also conducted the first experiments using a SiC optical sensor to measure cryogenic temperatures (IEEE 2006).
The Riza group has also proposed and developed the world first variable focus lens (or E-lens) based non-contact highest transverse spatial resolution 3-D shape sensors based on spatial processing to measure shapes of 3-D objects in extreme environments (OSA 2009). The work included using these sensors for caustic liquid level sensing [Elsevier 2010] as well as active depth from defocus sensing (Elsevier 2015) and the earliest works in distance sensing using machine learning (Elsevier 2017). Riza also pioneered the use of variable focus lens-based low loss optical power transfer optical wireless links using LEDs and lasers (IEEE 2012, US Patent Appl. 2014).
In the late 1980s while doing his Caltech Ph.D. research, Riza invented an electronically controlled, self-aligning, vibrations robust, low noise free-space laser beams Acousto-Optic (AO) architecture using double Bragg diffraction. This design innovation allowed precision amplitude, frequency, and phase control of laser beams, including Riza lab’s world record Angstrom scale sensitivity scanning heterodyne laser interferometry demonstration (OSA 2003). A unique feature of the architecture is that despite Radio Frequency (RF) steered beam motion, the final AO modulated output beam is stationary allowing coupling to a fixed optical fibre or point detector (AIP 1996, 2005). Thus, a noise immune robust laser beam amplitude/frequency/phase modulation architecture is realized that can operate with many types of lasers with different power levels and spectral characteristics, including infrared band and with laser frequency shifting and RF generation from MHz to several GHz. Many worldwide national metrology labs (e.g., France’s Laboratoire Commun de Metrologie LNE-CNAM and USA’s NIST) have adopted this robust programmable AO architecture to set records in measurement science (e.g., 1 picometer wavelength stability 650 nm to 1000 nm spectroradiometer for extreme precision temperature metrology done by French lab, AIP 2016) as well as design precision instruments for absorption spectroscopy, ion spectroscopy, laser cooling and atom clocks.
Another world first is the agile pixel imager including the Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) camera for extreme linear dynamic range as well as bright light smart imaging. See Health and Imaging section for relevant light irradiance measurement instrumentation inventions.
Extreme Environment Temperature, Pressure, Liquid Level, and 3-D Shape Sensors
1. N. A. Riza, M. Arain, F. Perez, “Harsh Environments Minimally Invasive Optical Sensor using Freespace Targets,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol.6, No.3, pp.672-685, June 2006.
2. N. A. Riza, M. Arain, F. Perez, “ 6H- Single Crystal Silicon Carbide Thermo-Optic Coefficient Measurements for Ultrahigh Temperatures up-to 1273 K in the telecommunications infrared band,” AIP J. of Appl. Phys., Vol.98, No.1, 2005.
3. N. A. Riza and M. A. Arain, “ Cryogenic Temperature Measurement using Silicon Carbide-based Wireless Optical Sensor,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., Vol.18, No.24, pp.2599-2601, Dec. 15, 2006.
4. N. A. Riza, F. N. Ghauri, and F. Perez, “Wireless Pressure Sensor using Laser Targeting of Silicon Carbide,” Optical Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, Jan. 2007.
5. N. A. Riza, F. N. Ghauri, and F. Perez “ Silicon Carbide-based remote wireless optical pressure sensor,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett, Vol.19, April 1, 2007.
6. N. A. Riza and M. Sheikh, “Silicon carbide based extreme environment temperature sensor using wavelength tuned signal processing,” Optics Letters, Vol.33, No.10, pp.1129-1131, May 15, 2008.
7. N. A. Riza and S. A. Reza, “Non-Contact Distance Sensor using Spatial Signal Processing,” Optics Letters, Vol.34, No.4, pp.434-436, Feb.15, 2009.
8. M. Sheikh and N. A. Riza, “Direct Measurement High Resolution Wide Range Extreme Temperature Optical Sensor using an all-Silicon Carbide Probe,” Optics Letters, May 1, 2009.
9. N. A. Riza, M. Sheikh, and F. Perez, “Hybrid Wireless-Wired Optical Sensor for Extreme Temperature Measurement in Next Generation Energy Efficient Gas Turbines,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, vol. 132, May 2010.
10. N. A. Riza and M. Sheikh, “ All-Silicon Carbide Hybrid Wireless-Wired Optics Temperature Sensor Network Basic Design Engineering for Power Plant Gas Turbines,” International Journal of Optomechatronics, Vol.4, No.1, Jan-March, Taylor & Francis, pp. 83-91, 2010.
11. N. A. Riza and M. Sheikh, “Silicon Carbide-based High Resolution Extreme Environment Hybrid Design Temperature Sensor using Optical Pyrometry and Laser Interferometry,” IEEE Sensors J., , Vol.10, No.2, Feb. 2010.
12. N. A. Riza and S. A. Reza, “Smart Agile Lens Remote Optical Sensor for Three Dimensional Object Shape Measurements,” Applied Optics, Vol. 49, No. 8, March 10, 2010.
13. S. A. Reza and N. A. Riza, “Agile Lensing-based Non-Contact Liquid Level Optical Sensor for Extreme Environments,” Optics Communications, Vol.283, pp.3391-3397, 2010.
14. M. J. Amin and N. A. Riza, “Smart laser scanning sampling head design for image acquisition applications,” Applied Optics, Vol.52, No.20, 10 July 2013.
15. N. A. Riza and M. J. Amin, “Multi-Image Acquisition based Distance Sensor using Agile Laser Spot Beam Targeting,” Applied Optics, Sept. 2014.
16. M. J. Amin, and N. A. Riza, “Active depth from defocus system using coherent illumination and a no moving parts camera,” Optics Communications , Vol. 359, 135-145, Sept. 2015.
17. J. Pablo La Torre, M. Junaid Amin, Barry Thompson, and N. A. Riza, “ Optical Shape Sensor using Electronically Controlled Lens,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol.16, No.12, April 13, 2016.
18. J. Pablo La Torre, B. Bornemann, and N. A. Riza, “ Smart Optical Shape Sensor using Electronically Controlled Lens and Laser Line Illumination Scanning,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Volume: 17, Issue: 4, Feb.15, 2017.
19. J. Pablo La Torre, N. Mayes, and N. A. Riza and, “Laser Display System for Multi-Depth Screen Projection Scenarios,” Applied Optics, Vol.56, pp.9023-9029, Sept.12, 2017.
20. M. J. Amin and N. A. Riza, “Machine Learning Enhanced Optical Distance Sensor,” Optics Communications (Elsevier Journal), Volume 407, Pages 262-270, 15 January 2018.
1. N. A. Riza, M.A. Arain, F. Perez, “Harsh Environments Minimally Invasive Optical Sensing Technique for Extreme Temperatures: 1000 °C and Approaching 2500 °C,” International Conf. Proceedings of Optical Fiber Sensors 17 (OFS 17), SPIE Proc. Vol. 5855, pp.687-690, May 23-27, 2005 Bruges, Belgium.
2. N. A. Riza, F. Ghauri, F. Perez “Hybrid optical sensors using laser targeting,” SPIE Proc. Vol. 6189, Paper No.4, Optical Sensing II Conference, Editor, B. Culshaw, SPIE International Photonics Europe Congress, Strasbourg, France, April 3, 2006.
3. N. A. Riza, M. Sheikh, F. Perez, “Progress on Silicon Carbide Hybrid-Design Optical Sensors for Extreme Environments,” OSA International Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS) Conference, OFS 18, Cancun, Mexico, Oct. 2006.
4. N. A. Riza, M. Sheikh, F. Perez “Wireless Temperature Sensors using Single Crystal Silicon Carbide – An Industrial Feasibility and Design Study,” SPIE Proc. Vol. 6585, Paper No.19, Optical Sensing III Conference, Editor, F. Baldini, J. Homola, and R. Lieberman, SPIE International Photonics Europe Congress, Prague, Czech Republic, April 17, 2007.
5. N. A. Riza, M. A. Sheikh, and F. Perez, “Design and Fabrication of an Extreme Temperature Sensing Optical Probe using Silicon Carbide Technologies,” IEEE Sensors 2007 International Conference paper, Atlanta, Oct. 28-31, 2007.
6. M. Sheikh and N. A. Riza, “Experimental Studies of an All-Silicon Carbide Hybrid Wireless-Wired Optics Temperature Sensor for Extreme Environments in Turbines,” SPIE Proc. Vol. 7003, Paper No.A-11, Optical Sensing IV Conference, Editors, Francis Berghmans and Anna Grazia Mignani, SPIE International Photonics Europe Congress, Strasbourg, France, April 7, 2008.
7. N. A. Riza, “Progress on Silicon Carbide Optical Sensors for Extreme Temperature Measurements in Gas Turbines,” Invited Paper & Presentation, International Instrumentation Symposium (IIS), Special Session of the Power Industry Working Group (PIWG), IIS Conf. Proceedings, Pennsacola, Florida, May 8, 2008.
8. N. A. Riza and M. A. Sheikh, “All-Silicon Carbide Hybrid Wireless-Wired Optics Temperature Sensor: Turbine Tests and Distributed Fiber Sensor Network Design,” SPIE Proc. Vol. 7356, Paper No.24, Optical Sensing V Conference, Editors, F. Baldini, J. Homola, and R. A. Leiberman, SPIE International Photonics Europe Congress, Prague, Czech Republic, April 21, 2009.
9. N. A. Riza, M. A. Sheikh, and F. Perez, “All-Silicon Carbide Hybrid Wireless-Wired Optics Extreme Temperature Sensor For Greener Next-Generation Gas Turbines,” OIDA Conference: OPTOmism: Powering the Green Revolution through Photonics, Santa Clara, May 20, 2009.
10. N. A, Riza, “Advances in Hybrid Wireless-Wired Optics Physical Sensors for Extreme Environments ,” SPIE Proc., Optical Sensing V Conference, Editors: F. Berghmans, A. G. Mignani, and C. A. van Hoof, SPIE International Photonics Europe Congress, Brussels, Belgium, April, 2010.
11. N. A. Riza and S. A. Reza, “ Non-Contact Opto-Fluidics-based Liquid Level Sensor for Harsh Environments,” SPIE Conf. on Photonics in the Transportation Industry: Auto to Aerospace III, Editors: A. Kazemi and B. C. Kress, SPIE Defense Security and Sensing, Vol. 7675, No.2, April 2010.
12. P. J. Marraccini and N. A. Riza, “High resolution wide dynamic range distance sensor using spatial signal processing,” Photonic Applications for Aerospace, Transportation, and Harsh Environment II, SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing Conf. Vol.8026, Paper 10, 25-29 April 2011.
13. N. A. Riza, “Advances in Hybrid Design Optical Sensors for Hazardous Environments of Energy Systems,” EOS Ann. Mtg. Proc., Aberdeen, 2012.
14. N. A. Riza, M. J. Amin, “Smart optical writing head design for laser-based manufacturing,” SPIE Photonics West Conference on Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing (LAMOM) XIX, SPIE Vol. 8967, paper No.51, Feb.4, San Francisco, 2014.
15. N. A. Riza, “Hybrid Optical Sensor for Extreme Temperature Measurement in Next Generation Higher Efficiency Greener Power Plants,” Invited paper, AMA SENSOR 2015 17th International Conference on Sensors and Measurement Technology Germany, 2015.
16. Juan Pablo La Torre, Nathan Mayes, and N. A. Riza, “Smart Art Display Projection System,” Photonics Ireland Conference Proc., Galway, Ireland, Sept.11, 2017.
Extremely Low Noise Frequency/Phase/Amplitude Acousto-optic Modulation and Interferometry Designs
- N. A. Riza, “Scanning heterodyne optical interferometers,” Review of Scientific Instruments, American Institute of Physics Journal, Vol.67, pp.2466-2476 7, July 1996.
- N. A. Riza and M.A. Arain, “Angstrom-range optical path-length measurement with a high-speed scanning heterodyne optical interferometer,” Applied Optics, OT, Vo.42, No.13, pp.2341-2345, 1 May 2003.
- N. A. Riza, M. Bakker, A. Bokhari, “ Programmable Spectral Interferometric Microscopy,” AIP Rev. Scientific Instru., Vol.76, 033107, 1 March on-line date, 2005.
- N. A. Riza and M. A. Arain, “Precision polarization multiplexed heterodyne acousto-optic interferometric sensor,” Optical Engineering, Vol.44, No.5, pp. 054401-5, May 2005.
- M. A. Arain and N. A. Riza, “Fiber Coupled in-line heterodyne optical interferometer for minimally invasive sensing,” IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol.23, No.8, pp.2449-2454, August 2005.
- N. A. Riza, “In-Line Acousto-Optic Architectures for Holographic Interferometry and Sensing,” OSA Topical Meeting on Holography Digest, pp.13-16, Boston, May, 1996.
- N. A. Riza, “Reflection and transmission mode scanning heterodyne interferometers for scientific and industrial applications,” OSA Ann. Meeting, Symp. on Optical Instrumentation for Genetic Sequencing , Paper MPP2, Oct.,21, Rochester, 1996.
- N. A. Riza and M. A. Arain, “Sub-micron range thickness measurements using a novel scanning heterodyne optical interferometer,” The 1st IEEE International Conference on Sensors, IEEE Sensors 2002, Paper No. 25.2, June 12-14, 2002, Hyatt Orlando, Kissimmee, Florida USA.
- N. A. Riza and M. A. Arain, “Angstrom sensitivity polarization multiplexed heterodyne acousto-optic interferometric sensor,” The 3rd IEEE International Conference on Sensors, IEEE Sensors 2004, Paper No. W1P-P, Oct.27, 2004, Vienna, Austria.
- M. A. Arain and N. A. Riza, “Self Calibrating Wavelength Multiplexed Heterodyne Interferometer for Angstrom Precision Measurements,” Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5814, Paper No. 5814-19, Enabling Photonics Technologies for Defense, Security, and Aerospace Applications, in Defense and Security Symposium 2005, Orlando, Florida, USA , March 28-April 01, 2005.
- N. A. Riza, M. Bakker, A. Bokhari, F. Perez, “Spectral Agile Interferometric Birefringence Microscopy Instrument,” EOS Topical Meeting on Optical Imaging, Imperial College, London June 2005.
Patents in Acousto-Optic Modulation and Interferometry
- N. A. Riza, “Scanning heterodyne acousto-optical interferometers,” USA Patent No. 5,694,216, Dec. 2, 1997.
- N. A. Riza, “ High speed fiber-optic attenuation modules,” Patent No. 6,885,807, April 26, 2005.
- N. A. Riza and M. J. Mughal, “ Electronically tunable optical filtering modules,” Patent No. 6,982,818, January 3, 2006.
- N. A. Riza, F. Perez, A. Bokhari, “Agile spectral interferometric microscopy,” Patent No. 7,180,602 B2, Feb. 20, 2007.